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A Redescription of Apatania mongolica Martynov, 1914 (Trichoptera: Apataniidae), Based on Materials from Southern Mongolia

Suvdtsetseg Chuluunbat1, Gantigmaa Chuluunbaatar2 and John C. Morse3
1Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey, Hydrobiology Laboratory, Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
2Institute of Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar 210351, Mongolia
3Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Long Hall, Box 340315, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0315 USA


The male of Apatania mongolica is redescribed, and the description of the previously undiagnosed female of this species is provided with illustrations. Based on the features of our material, the male of A. mongolica is easily distinguishable from those of other species of the genus by having a very broad median process of segment X curved ventrad and C-shaped. The female differs from those of other Apatania species by having the hind wing discoidal cell closed, the apex of segment IX rectangular in lateral view, and the supragenital plate well-developed and thick in lateral view.

Keyword: Apatania mongolica,female description,diagnostic characters


The male of a caddisfl y species, Apatania mongolica was fi rst described by Martynov (1914) based upon the collection made by M. Kozlov in 1908 from Alashan, Chyn-juan (presumably A-la Shan, Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China). Subsequently, he transferred the species to the genus Apatelia Wallengren, 1886 (Martynov, 1917). Ulmer (1932) reported a male of A. mongolica at Yenching University in Beijing. Redrawing the illustrations of male genitalia of this species from Martynov’s description, Schmid (1954) included it in his A. mongolica subgroup, A. fi mbriata group, A. fi mbriata supergroup. Later, Schmid (1955) analyzed the Apataniidae (as limnephilid subfamily Apataniinae) based on descriptions of several representative species and again placed A. mongolica into his A. fi mbriata group, but the female of the species remained unknown. Presence of this species in Mongolia has not been confi rmed since the report by Thienemann (1926). During an insect survey, an unknown female was found in copula with a male of A. mongolica. This fi nding is providing us an opportunity to examine the mating pair of A. mongolica and present the fi rst published description of the female and a redescription of the male.

Material and Methods

A male and two females of A. mongolica were collected from the meadow surrounding Khairt spring, which is located about 20 km to the west of Khatsavch spring (E43.01046; N101.09266) in Gurvantes Soum in Umnugovi Aimag, Mongolia. Methods used for preparation of genitalia are those outlined by Blahnik and Holzenthal (2004), and Blahnik et al. (2007). The abdomens were cut between segments III and IV, soaked in 12% potassium hydroxide (KOH), then heated on a hot plate for 15-20 minutes in order to digest (“clear”) non-chitinous tissue. Cleared abdomens were passed through distilled water to remove the base, transferred to 70% ethyl alcohol for cleaning of the remaining debris with a fi ne-needle syringe, and permanently stored in glycerin. Wings of the specimens were mounted dry on microscope slides. Digital images of wings and genitalia were acquired with a Leica EZ4 D digital dissecting microscope camera. Length measurements were made using LAS EZ image capture software. These images were reduced to 18 X 23 cm and printed. All drawings were made by tracing the printed digital images, and then details of the genitalia were added by examining them in glycerin using the Leica EZ4 D dissecting microscope. Ruiter’s (2000) terminology for the wing venation of caddisfl ies is followed as shown in fi gures 1-4, and Nielsen’s (1957, 1980) terminology for male and female genitalia is applied in this paper.
Descriptions of male and female
Apatania mongolica Martynov, 1914

(Figs. 1-11)
Apatania mongolica Martynov, 1914: 44, fi gs. 33- 36.
Apatelia mongolica (Martynov): Martynov, 1917: 61.
Apatania mongolica Martynov: Ulmer, 1932: 68.
Apatania mongolica Martynov: Schmid, 1954: 40, fi g. 75.
Apatania mongolica Martynov: Schmid, 1955: 83.
Both male and female: Head reddish brown, appendages of head fuscous. Head with 3 ocelli. Antennae uniformly brown, reaching forewings. Antennal scapes shorter than head length. Maxillary palps 3-segmented in male, 5-segmented in female. Labial palps 3-segmented in both sexes. Thorax brown. Prothorax much shorter than other thoracic segments, pronotum bearing 2 pairs of setal warts. Mesoscutum narrowing posteriorly and with pair of large oval setal warts anteriorly. Mesoscutellum triangular, with pair of large subtriangular setal warts placed on anterolateral edges of mesoscutellum. Anterior margin of metascutum broadly notched medially, metascutellum subtriangular, broadly pointed anteriorly and gradually widened posteriorly. Legs generally brown, with proximal segments darker and distal segments lighter. Legs with tibial spurs 1, 2, 4 on each foreleg, midleg, and hind leg, respectively. Wings light brown. Each forewing with subcosta (Sc) abruptly angled anterad to notched costal margin (C), Sc and fi rst radial vein (R1) connected with subcostal-radial crossvein (sc-r) at this angle, forming distinctive truncate basal border of pterostigma. Pterostigma with thick, deciduous androconial hairs. Discoidal cell (dsc.cl.) short and thyridial cell (thd.cl.) long. Cubital crossvein (cu) connecting fi rst and second cubital veins (Cu1 and Cu2) subapically at point where Cu2 angles abruptly to hind margin. Anal veins (A1, A2 and A3) short, looped and fused apically into single vein. Forks I, II, III, and V present (Figs. 1, 3). Hind wings each with 3 frenular setae (fr.st.) at base of frenulum. Hind wing discoidal cell open (male, Fig. 2) or closed and short (female, Fig. 4), thyridial cell (thd.cl.) long. Posterior median vein (M3+4) and anterior Cu1 vein (Cu1a) fused for short distance, without m-cu crossvein. Forks I, II, III, and V present. Male genitalia (Figs. 5-8): Segment IX (IX) short ventrally, longer laterally, short dorsally, forming narrow transverse dorsal band (ac) with dorsal process (dpr) rounded posteriorly; anterolateral margins convex subdorsally and concave subventrally, posterolateral margins straight subdorsally and convex subventrally with row of long setae near posterolateral margin. Inferior appendages (inf.ap) cylindrical, bearing numerous setae, each with basal segment tall and broad basally, narrowed ventromesally, thick in distal half; its harpago (hrp) more slender than its basal segment and shorter, comprised of upper and lower parts (hrp.ul and hrp.ll), with upper lobe slender and apically blunt, lower lobe subtriangular in lateral and ventral views, apically rounded and less than half as long as upper lobe. Superior appendages (sp.ap) of segment X small with few setae, cylindrical. External branches of segment X (ext.br) long, slender, 4 times longer than superior appendages. Median process of segment X (me.pr) shorter than external branches, its base broad, apex slender, strongly curved ventrad. Body of segment X (bo.X) triangular, semi-membranous, dorsoventrally depressed. Phallus with cup-like phallobase (phb), phallicata (phl) tubular and heavily sclerotized, with pair of long membranous endothecal processes (end) bearing numerous bristles (phls). Parameres (prm) slender, obliquely truncated apically. Female genitalia (Figs. 9-11): Segment IX (IXa, b, c, d) separated laterally from segment X, IXa bare, IXb setose, IXc setose and fused ventrally beneath anus (an), lateral lobes (IXd) well-developed, each divided into 2 parts: setose, triangular, dorsolateral portion (IXd.d) and bare, elliptical, ventrolateral portion (IXd.v). External portion of segment X or supragenital plate (Xe) transverse, rather short, relatively broadly rounded in ventral view, thick and apically blunt in lateral view, and heavily sclerotized. External portion of sternum IX (e.gon.IX) forming triangular vulvar scale (in the sense of Unzicker, 1968), internally divided into broad ventral plate (v.i.gon.IX) and pair of dorsal bands (d.i.gon.IX). Sternum VIII (e.gon.VIII) semimembranous apically with transverse striations, forming long, slender and thumb-like vulvar lobe. Anal opening (an) visible ventrally. Diagnosis: The male of A. mongolica is easily distinguishable from those of other species of the genus by having a very broad median process of segment X curved ventrad, C-shaped. The female differs from those of other Apatania species by having the hind wing discoidal cell closed, the apex of segment IX rectangular in lateral view, and the supragenital plate well-developed and thick in lateral view. Distribution: Alashan, Chyn-juan, China, and Umnugovi Aimag, Mongolia.


The present study was supported by grants from the Environmental Policy Department of South Gobi Sands LLC (Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar), a subsidiary of South Gobi Energy Resources Ltd. We thank Mr. Khurelbaatar Bilguun and Ms. Sarantuya Dashdavaa (Environmental Offi cers of South Gobi Sands LLC) for extensive help with the fi eld survey. We are grateful for helpful reviews of the manuscript by Drs. R.G. Bellinger and G.R. Carner of Clemson University, anonymous reviewers, and the editor. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation (DEB-0743732). This is Technical Contribution Number 5752 of the Clemson University Experiment Station.


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